A paper not too long ago printed within the journal ACS Omega reviewed the present standing and potential of X-ray spectroptychography for the characterization of superior nanomaterials.
Research: X-ray Spectroptychography. Picture Credit score: Gorodenkoff/Shutterstock.com
What’s X-ray Spectroptychography?
X-ray spectroptychography is an rising method that represents the ptychographic model of X-ray spectromicroscopy and is used for the chemical microanalysis of nanomaterials reminiscent of batteries and catalysts. This system relies on the prevailing synchrotron X-ray spectromicroscopy and microscopy strategies with an added ptychography, an algorithmic imaging method, for picture acquisition.
Determine 1. Schematic of a scanning transmission X-ray microscope. Tailored with permission from ref (45). Pattern is raster scanned via the targeted X-ray beam. In standard STXM, transmission is measured by a serial detector downstream of the pattern. In ptychographic STXM, a diffraction sample is measured with a pixelated detector downstream of the pattern, as proven within the determine. © Urquhart (2022)
X-ray spectroptychography gives a better spatial decision throughout chemical microanalysis in comparison with standard X-ray optics. In conventional X-ray microscopes, the spatial decision is restricted by the focusing properties of their X-ray optics. Nonetheless, ptychography can considerably improve the spatial decision of X-ray microscopy as this lensless imaging method depends on the diffraction of coherent radiation by an amorphous pattern.
Inside coherent diffractive imaging (CDI), the forerunner of ptychography, the reconstruction of the picture of an remoted object relies on the diffraction sample of the item, which is obtained by the uniform illumination of the item. This issue limits the sensible software of the method. Nonetheless, in contrast to the CDI methodology, ptychography makes use of a sequence of coherent far-field diffraction patterns obtained from the overlapping areas of the remoted pattern with out requiring the pattern.
Ptychography microscopes use zone plates, refractive Laue lenses, Kirkpatrick−Baez mirrors, or pinholes to light up the check pattern with a well-defined coherent probe. These optics present a continuing focal size when the X-ray vitality is altered for spectroscopy.
Each section and absorption may be utilized for ptychography picture distinction. Part distinction is extra essential in a tough X-ray measurement obtained from a check pattern. X-ray spectroptychography can present the complete refractive index of a pattern comprising the section and absorption spectra.
X-Ray Spectroptychography Functions
In the previous couple of years, the spatial decision supplied by X-ray spectroptychography was enhanced owing to the enhancements in algorithms and instrumentation related to the method. At the moment, the method is used to check nanostructured vitality supplies reminiscent of magnetic supplies and gasoline cell cathodes.
X-ray magnetic round dichroism (XMCD) spectroptychography can be utilized to guage the magnetic nanostructure of supplies. For example, XMCD spectroptychography was used to analyze the out-of-plane magnetization in gadolinium/iron multilayer samples and examine the nanoscale magnetite single crystals synthesized by magnetotactic micro organism.
X-ray spectroptychography can present a chemical characterization of battery supplies at a better spatial decision in comparison with standard X-ray spectromicroscopy and microscopy. Particularly, this method gives an oxidation state mapping of specific steel ions with a excessive spatial decision throughout battery cycles. For example, iron L3-edge X-ray spectroptychography was used to map delithiation and lithiation via the corresponding adjustments within the iron 2p oxidation state.
The steel oxidation state was additionally mapped at exhausting X-ray energies utilizing this method. Spectroptychography is used for chemical mapping to observe the connection between the chemical and mechanical stability of lithium-ion batteries. The method can be used for the elucidation of floor chemistry and minority phases.
X-ray spectroptychography is used extensively to analyze catalyst supplies as the development of those supplies depends upon excessive spatial decision chemical mapping of heterogeneous supplies. Moreover, this method can be used to guage porosity in heterogeneous catalyst supplies reminiscent of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts.
Determine 2. Spectroptychography of 30 nm diameter Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Amplitude (a) and section (b) ptychography pictures, recorded at 710.0 eV. Picture measurement is 2.1 × 2.1 μm. (c) Absorption (optical density) and section Fe L3 spectra obtained from this pattern. (Inset) Area from which the pattern sign for amplitude and section (inexperienced area) was extracted. Amplitude sign from an open space (crimson area) was used for the incidence flux within the calculation of the pattern optical density utilizing Beer’s legislation, −ln(I/Io). © Urquhart (2022)
Different Features Associated to X-ray Spectroptychography
Three-dimensional (3D) mapping utilizing spectroptychotomography may help in avoiding spurious correlations in two-dimensional (2D) transmission imaging. For example, a “sparse” spectroptychotomography examine based mostly on the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction method (SART) was used to cut back the variety of projections wanted to acquire a high-quality reconstruction.
Though multi-energy spectroptychotomography research can present chemical mapping in an in depth method, these research are sometimes restricted to radiation-resistant supplies and are extraordinarily time-consuming.
Prolonged X-ray Absorption Fantastic Construction (EXAFS) Spectroptychography
EXAFS spectroptychography requires a number of photon energies to offer an interferogram, which may be then Fourier reworked to acquire a radial distribution perform. Nonetheless, EXAFS spectroptychography research require wonderful stability and are time-consuming.
In Situ and Operando Spectroptychography
This system may be probably used to analyze samples in lifelike and assorted situations. Nonetheless, the dwell occasions wanted for ptychography measurements and the requirement for a number of energies for spectroscopic sensitivity are the main challenges of in situ research.
X-ray Linear Dichroism Spectroptychography
This system can be utilized in a number of functions. For example, the linear dichroism of a vanadium pentoxide crystal was investigated by X-ray linear dichroism spectroptychography at orthogonal polarization states and the V Okay edge to acquire section and absorption maps of polycrystalline vanadium pentoxide.
Way forward for X-ray Spectroptychography
X-ray spectroptychography and ptychography are quickly turning into the popular synchrotron strategies for optics and instrumentation. Nonetheless, the section spectra and pictures of supplies with advanced buildings obtained by these strategies can’t be simply rationalized, which is a significant disadvantage. Part spectra can reveal further sample-related data, whereas section pictures can be utilized to a restricted extent for chemical imaging of samples with decreased radiation harm.
Moreover, X-ray cameras show lowered sensitivity at decrease photon energies, which limits the appliance of spectroptychography in numerous supplies reminiscent of lithium-ion batteries and natural digital batteries. A extra constant signal-to-noise ratio is required to acquire increased spatial decision measurements. Latest research have demonstrated that spectroptychography has important potential for correlative imaging when it’s used with different microscopy strategies.
Advanced ptychographic information units may be analyzed utilizing statistical strategies reminiscent of machine studying, which may help within the translation of superior statistical evaluation and reconstruction strategies to experimentally accessible instruments.
To summarize, X-ray spectroptychography is quick turning into a mainstream methodology for the chemical microanalysis of nanomaterials. Nonetheless, the time required for information acquisition stays a problem on this method.
Urquhart, S.G. (2022) X‑ray Spectroptychography. ACS Omega. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsomega.2c00228